1/19/2015

UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Case No. 14-cv-01967

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Respectfully submitted,
/s/ Jonathan Turley
JONATHAN TURLEY
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DC Bar No. 417674
2000 H Street, N.W.
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jturley@law.gwu.edu

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IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
)
UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, )
United States Capitol )
Washington, D.C. 20515, )
)
Plaintiff, )
)
v. ) Case No. 14-cv-01967
)
SYLVIA MATHEWS BURWELL, )
in her official capacity as Secretary of the United States )
Department of Health and Human Services, )
200 Independence Avenue, S.W. )
Washington, D.C. 20201, )
)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH )
AND HUMAN SERVICES, )
200 Independence Avenue, S.W. )
Washington, D.C. 20201, )
)
JACOB J. LEW, )
in his official capacity as Secretary of the United States )
Department of the Treasury, )
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. )
Washington, D.C. 20220, and )
)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF )
THE TREASURY, )
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. )
Washington, D.C. 20220, )
)
Defendants. )
)
COMPLAINT
PRELIMINARY STATEMENT
This case arises out of unconstitutional and unlawful actions taken by the Administration
of President Barack Obama (the “Administration”) in respect of the Patient Protection and
Affordable Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010) (“ACA”). In challenging these
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actions, this case addresses fundamental issues regarding the limits of Executive power under our
constitutional form of government, and the continued viability of the separation of powers
doctrine upon which “the whole American fabric has been erected.” Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S.
(1 Cranch) 137, 176 (1803). This lawsuit thus raises issues of exceptional importance, not only
to plaintiff United States House of Representatives, but also to the entire nation.
One fundamental tenet of our divided-power system of government is that all legislative
power is vested in Congress, and Congress alone. U.S. Const. art. I, § 1 (“All legislative Powers
herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives.”). This legislative power may be exercised only through the
“single, finely wrought, and exhaustively considered process,” Clinton v. City of New York, 524
U.S. 417, 439-40 (1998), that is familiar to us all, namely, the passage of identical bills by the
House of Representatives and the Senate (bicameralism), followed by delivery to the President
for his signature or veto (presentment). U.S. Const. art. I, § 7, cl. 2 (“Every Bill which shall have
passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented
to the President of the United States . . . .”). Beyond the President’s role in the presentment
process, the Constitution does not permit the Executive Branch to enact laws, or to amend or
repeal duly enacted laws, including by adopting rules or taking other unilateral actions that have
such an effect.
Equally fundamental is the constitutional ban on the expenditure of any public funds by
any branch of the federal government, including the Executive Branch, absent enactment of a
law appropriating such funds: “No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in
Consequence of Appropriations made by Law . . . .” U.S. Const. art. I, § 9, cl. 7. Congress thus
has a necessary role – indeed, the defining role – in our system over any expenditure of public
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funds by virtue of the fact that it first must pass identical appropriations bills in the House of
Representatives and the Senate – and such bills then must become law – before any public funds
may be expended, and then only expended as directed in such duly enacted appropriations laws.
The Executive Branch has no authority to expend public funds that have not been thus
appropriated.
The Administration has made no secret of its willingness, notwithstanding Article I of the
Constitution, to act without Congress when Congress declines to enact laws that the
Administration desires. Not only is there no license for the Administration to “go it alone” in our
system, but such unilateral action is directly barred by Article I. Despite such fundamental
constitutional limitations, the Administration repeatedly has abused its power by using executive
action as a substitute for legislation. This suit challenges two such abuses:
A. Defendants Sylvia Mathews Burwell, Secretary of the United States Department of
Health and Human Services, Jacob J. Lew, Secretary of the United States Department of the
Treasury, and the respective Executive Branch departments they head, have violated, and are
continuing to violate, the Constitution by directing, paying, and continuing to pay, public funds
to certain insurance companies to implement a program authorized by the ACA, but for which no
funds have been appropriated. Such unconstitutional payments are estimated to exceed $3 billion
in Fiscal Year 2014, and total approximately $175 billion over the ten succeeding Fiscal Years.
Defendants’ expenditure of taxpayer funds, absent a congressional appropriation, plainly is
unconstitutional as it violates Article I of the Constitution; it also violates statutory law, in
particular, 31 U.S.C. § 1324, the ACA, and the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 500 et
seq.
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B. Defendants Lew and the United States Department of the Treasury also have violated
the Constitution by issuing a regulation that effectively amends ACA provisions that impose
mandates on certain employers and establish a deadline by which such employers must comply
with those mandates. These unconstitutional actions are estimated to cost federal taxpayers at
least $12 billion.
The House now brings this civil action for declaratory and injunctive relief to halt these
unconstitutional and unlawful actions which usurp the House’s Article I legislative powers.
PARTIES
1. Plaintiff United States House of Representatives (“House”) is the legislative body
constituted by Article I, section 2 of the United States Constitution.
2. Defendant Sylvia Mathews Burwell is, and has been since June 9, 2014, the
Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. As Secretary,
defendant Burwell is responsible for all actions taken by the department she heads.
3. Defendant United States Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) is
an agency in the Executive Branch of the federal government.
4. Defendant Jacob J. Lew is, and has been since February 28, 2013, the Secretary of
the United States Department of the Treasury. As Secretary, defendant Lew is responsible for all
actions taken by the department he heads.
5. Defendant United States Department of the Treasury (“Treasury Department”) is
an agency in the Executive Branch of the federal government.
JURISDICTION AND VENUE
6. This Court has jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331 and 1345. This case
arises under the Constitution and the laws of the United States, and is brought by the United
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States, i.e., the United States House of Representatives, which is a component of the United
States government.
7. On July 30, 2014, the United States House of Representatives adopted, by a vote
of 225-201, H. Res. 676, which provides that
the Speaker is authorized to initiate or intervene in one or more
civil actions on behalf of the House of Representatives in a Federal
court of competent jurisdiction to seek any appropriate relief
regarding the failure of the President, the head of any department
or agency, or any other officer or employee of the executive
branch, to act in a manner consistent with that official’s duties
under the Constitution and laws of the United States with respect
to implementation of any provision of the Patient Protection and
Affordable Care Act, title I or subtitle B of title II of the Health
Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, including any
amendment made by such provision, or any other related provision
of law, including a failure to implement any such provision.
8. Section 3(a) of H. Res. 676 provides that “[t]he Office of the General Counsel of
the House of Representatives, at the direction of the Speaker, shall represent the House in any
civil action initiated, or in which the House intervenes, pursuant to this resolution, and may
employ the services of outside counsel and other experts for this purpose.”
9. This Court has authority to issue a declaratory judgment, and to order injunctive
and other relief that is just and proper, pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 2201 and 2202, and Rules 57
and 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
10. Venue is proper in this Court pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1391(b) and (e), and
5 U.S.C. § 703.
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ALLEGATIONS
The Constitution Vests the Congress, Not the Executive, with the Authority to Legislate,
Including the Authority to Legislate to Appropriate Public Funds
11. Article I, section 1 of the Constitution provides that “All legislative Powers herein
granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and
House of Representatives.”
12. Article I, section 7, clause 2 of the Constitution provides that “Every Bill which
shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be
presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it . . . .”
13. Article I, section 9, clause 7 of the Constitution provides that “No Money shall be
drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published
from time to time.”
Authorizing Legislation Is Distinct from Appropriations Legislation
14. “Authorization” legislation establishes, continues, or modifies an agency,
program, or government function. Authorization laws alone, however, do not provide the legal
authority required by Article I, section 9, clause 7 of the Constitution to expend public funds.
Only an “appropriations” law can do that.
15. An “appropriations” law – and only an appropriations law – permits the
expenditure of public funds. That is, appropriations legislation is the sole mechanism by which
Congress empowers federal agencies to expend public funds in compliance with Article I,
section 9, clause 7 of the Constitution.
16. In keeping with its broad, constitutional authority, Congress may choose not to
appropriate funds for an authorized program, or Congress may appropriate a different amount of
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money than the amount (if any) provided for in an authorization. Congress also may limit the
purposes for which appropriated funds may be used. Only a validly enacted appropriations law –
not an underlying authorization – permits a federal agency to expend public funds. Although
Congress may combine an authorization and an appropriation in a single bill, it may (and most
often does) enact them separately.
17. Appropriations laws generally take one of two forms: (a) temporary
appropriations, which typically are enacted on an annual basis,1 and (b) permanent
appropriations, which are few in number and which (i) remain in effect until Congress repeals or
modifies them, and (ii) permit federal agencies to expend public funds without the need for
passage of a temporary appropriations bill in the current Congress. For an appropriation to be
considered permanent, the law must clearly and expressly so provide.2
18. By providing funding to the Executive Branch through temporary (typically
annual) appropriations, Congress ensures Executive Branch accountability by forcing the
Executive Branch to return to Congress each year to seek continued funding for authorized
agencies, programs, and government functions. This process provides Congress the opportunity
1 See, e.g., Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, Pub. L. No. 113-76, § 5, 128 Stat. 5, 7 (2014) (“The
following sums in this Act are appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated,
for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2014.”); id. div. B, tit. II (“For expenses necessary for the
administration of the Department of Justice, $110,000,000 . . . .”).
2 Examples of permanent appropriations laws are 31 U.S.C. § 1304(a) (payment of certain judgments:
“Necessary amounts are appropriated to pay final judgments, awards, compromise settlements, and
interest and costs . . . when [certain specified conditions are met]”); 31 U.S.C. § 1305(2) (payment of
interest on national debt: “Necessary amounts are appropriated . . . to pay interest on the public debt
under laws authorizing payment.”); 31 U.S.C. § 1324 (payments for refunds due under Internal Revenue
Code: “Necessary amounts are appropriated to the Secretary of the Treasury for refunding internal
revenue collections as provided by law . . . .”); 42 U.S.C. § 401(a) (payments to Social Security
recipients: “There is hereby appropriated to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, and for each fiscal year thereafter, [certain specified tax
revenues].”); and 42 U.S.C. § 1395i(a) (payments for Medicare benefits: “There are hereby appropriated
to the [Federal Hospital Insurance] Trust Fund for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and for each fiscal
year thereafter, [certain specified tax revenues].”).
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to determine a suitable amount of funding after careful consideration of, among other things,
needs and effectiveness.
19. Temporary appropriations also reinforce and further Congress’ constitutional
responsibility to oversee the Executive Branch, and thereby act as a check upon the Executive
Branch, as the Framers intended.
20. Without an explicit appropriation of funds by Congress, legal requirements
imposed on Administration officials are merely unfunded authorizations. In such cases, the
Administration is constitutionally barred from expending public funds on the agency, program,
or government function which has been authorized.
21. The Administration is constitutionally barred from converting an authorization
that requires a temporary appropriation into a permanent appropriation. Indeed, such conversion
effectively would negate the defining “power of the purse” given to Congress by the Framers.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – the ACA – Becomes Law
22. On December 24, 2009, H.R. 3560, 111th Cong. (2009), as amended and retitled
“Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,” passed the Senate by a vote of 60-39.
23. On March 21, 2010, the House of Representatives agreed to the Senate
amendments by a vote of 219-212.
24. On March 23, 2010, H.R. 3560, as agreed to by both the Senate and the House of
Representatives, was signed into law by President Obama. See ACA, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124
Stat. 119 (2010).
The Administration Expends Public Funds That Congress Has Not Appropriated
25. Section 1402(a)(2) of the ACA requires all health insurance issuers that offer a
qualified health plan through the ACA (“Insurers”) to provide reduced deductibles, co-pays, and
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co-insurance levels to qualified policyholders enrolled in such plans (“Beneficiaries”). These
reductions are referred to in the ACA as “Cost-Sharing Reductions.”
26. ACA Cost-Sharing Reductions are required by law and are not contingent upon
the receipt by Insurers of any offsetting payments from the government. Rather, Insurers – who
benefit enormously by participating in the ACA – are statutorily required to provide Cost-
Sharing Reductions to Beneficiaries as a condition of being permitted to offer insurance policies
through an ACA health insurance marketplace exchange.
27. The ACA also establishes a program by which the government is authorized to
make direct payments to Insurers to offset costs that Insurers incur in providing Cost-Sharing
Reductions to Beneficiaries (referred to herein as the “Section 1402 Offset Program”).3
28. Congress has not, and never has, appropriated any funds (whether through
temporary appropriations or permanent appropriations) to make any Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers.
29. In contrast, Congress has appropriated funds for section 1401 of the ACA. That
provision authorizes refundable tax credits to be paid for qualified individuals to reduce the cost
of their health insurance premiums (referred to herein as the “Section 1401 Refundable Tax
Credit Program”) through the standing permanent appropriation for refunds due under the
Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”), 31 U.S.C. § 1324. The Section 1402 Offset Program, on the
other hand, is not funded through this or any other appropriation.4
3 Section 1412(c)(3) of the ACA establishes the mechanism by which any Section 1402 Offset Program
payments would be made.
4 Compare ACA §§ 1401(a), 1401(d)(1), 1412(c)(2) (payment of tax credits under Section 1401
Refundable Tax Credit Program to be made through IRC), with ACA §§ 1402, 1412(c)(3) (providing no
authority for Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers to be funded through IRC).
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30. The Congressional Budget Office (“CBO”) estimates that the Administration’s
Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers would total approximately $178 billion for
fiscal years 2014 through 2024.5
31. The Administration repeatedly has acknowledged that it requires temporary
appropriations to fund Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers. For example, in its
Fiscal Year 2014 budget submission to Congress – and in particular, in the section of its Fiscal
Year 2014 budget submission dealing with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
(“CMS”), an agency within defendant HHS – the Administration specifically requested, “[f]or
carrying out . . . sections 1402 and 1412 of the [ACA], such sums as necessary,” and, “[f]or
carrying out . . . such sections in the first quarter of fiscal year 2015[,] . . . $1,420,000,000.”6
32. Similarly, defendant HHS, in its underlying budget justification for Fiscal Year
2014, expressly recognized that it required an annual (temporary) appropriation for CMS’ “five
annually-appropriated accounts,” including, in particular, a new, “annually-appropriated”
account for the 1402 Offset Program payments beginning in FY 2014, the “Reduced Cost
Sharing for Individuals Enrolled in Qualified Health Plans (Cost Sharing Reductions)” account.7
CMS said it needed an “annual” appropriation for Section 1402 Offset Program payments in the
amount of “$4.0 billion in the first year of [ACA Exchange] operations . . . [and] a $1.4 billion
advance appropriation for the first quarter of FY 2015 . . . to permit CMS to reimburse [certain
5 See CBO, Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act – CBO’s April 2014 Baseline at
Table 3 (Apr. 14, 2014), available at
http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/43900-
2014-04-ACAtables2.pdf.
6 Office of Mgmt. & Budget (“OMB”), Fiscal Year 2014 Budget of the U.S. Government, App. at 448
(Apr. 10, 2013), available at
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/
assets/appendix.pdf.
7 See HHS, Fiscal Year 2014, CMS, Justification of Estimates for Appropriations Committees (“FY 2014
CMS Justification”), at 2, 4, 7, 183-84, available at
http://www.cms.gov/about-cms/agency-information/
performancebudget/downloads/fy2014-cj-final.pdf.
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insurance] issuers.”8 As defendant HHS explained: “CMS requests an appropriation in order to
ensure adequate funding to make payments to issuers to cover reduced cost-sharing in FY
2014.”9
33. In other words, at the time of its Fiscal Year 2014 budget submission to Congress,
the Administration correctly recognized that Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers
could not be made unless and until Congress specifically appropriated funds for that purpose.
34. Congress has not appropriated any funds for Section 1402 Offset Program
payments to Insurers for Fiscal Years 2014 or 2015.
35. Notwithstanding the lack of any congressional appropriation for Section 1402
Offset Program payments, defendants Lew and the Treasury Department, at the direction of
defendants Burwell and HHS, began making Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers
in January 2014, and, upon information and belief, continues to make such payments.10 The
Office of Management and Budget (“OMB”) has reported that Section 1402 Offset Program
payments to Insurers for Fiscal Year 2014 were estimated to be $3.978 billion.11
8 FY 2014 CMS Justification, at 2, 7.
9 FY 2014 CMS Justification, at 183-84.
10 See CMS, March Marketplace Payment Processing Cycle: Enrollment & Payment Data Reporting and
Restatement at 9 (Feb. 12, 2014) (“Payments for the January payment month . . . were sent to issuers in
January.”), available at
https://www.regtap.info/uploads/library/FM_MPP_Slides_021214_5CR_
021214.pdf; see also CMS, Marketplace Payment Processing: Restatement and Payment Reporting at 7,
11 (Jan. 13, 2014) (stating that payments would begin in January 2014), available at
https://www.regtap.info/uploads/library/FM_MPP_RestatementPayRprtSlides_011314_5CR_011514.pdf.
11 See OMB, OMB Sequestration Preview Report to the President and Congress for Fiscal Year 2014 and
OMB Report to the Congress on the Joint Committee Reductions for Fiscal Year 2014, Corrected
Version, p. 23 (May 20, 2013) (“OMB Report FY 2014”), available at
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/
default/files/omb/assets/legislative_reports/fy14_preview_and_joint_committee_reductions_reports_0520
2013.pdf. The House does not know the actual amount that defendants have expended on Section 1402
Offset Program payments because, as discussed below, the Administration has disguised those figures.
See infra note 14.
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36. In its Fiscal Year 2015 budget submission, submitted to Congress in March 2014,
the Administration dramatically and conspicuously changed course. The Administration’s
request for a temporary appropriation to CMS to enable it to make Section 1402 Offset Program
payments to Insurers disappeared, and was replaced with a single line item in the Internal
Revenue Service (“IRS”) section of the budget, lumping together Section 1401 Refundable Tax
Credit Program payments – funding for which is permanently appropriated through the IRC –
with Section 1402 Offset Program payments which are not funded through the IRC.12
37. The only explanation the Administration has offered for its unilateral decision to
make Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers, notwithstanding the lack of any
congressional appropriation for such payments, came from defendant Burwell in May 2014,
when she was serving as Director of OMB, in the context of Senate hearings on her nomination
to be Secretary of HHS.
38. Specifically, defendant Burwell then stated, in a letter to Senators Ted Cruz and
Michael Lee, that no payments would be made from a Treasury account established for the
purpose of making Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers (account no. 009-38-
0126). (Presumably this was so because there was no money in that account since Congress had
not appropriated any funds for Section 1402 Offset Program payments.) Instead, defendant
Burwell said, Section 1402 Offset Program payments “will be paid out of the same account
12 See OMB, Fiscal Year 2015 Budget of the U.S. Government, App. at 1087 (Mar. 4, 2014), available at
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2015/assets/appendix.pdf.
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[account no. 015-45-0949] from which the [Section 1401 Refundable Tax Credit Program
payments] are paid,” an explanation that she justified on grounds of “efficiency.”13
39. Defendant Burwell’s explanation – translated – means that defendants are using
the permanent appropriation meant to pay for tax refunds due under the IRC (31 U.S.C. § 1324)
to fund not only Section 1401 Refundable Tax Credit Program payments, but also Section 1402
Offset Program payments, even though (a) the ACA does not permit that permanent
appropriation to be used to fund Section 1402 Offset Program payments, and (b) 31 U.S.C.
§ 1324 expressly states that “[d]isbursements may be made from the appropriation made by this
section only for (1) refunds to the limit of liability of an individual tax account, and (2) refunds
due from credit provisions of the [IRC],” 31 U.S.C. § 1324(b); defendants’ direct payments to
Insurers under the Section 1402 Offset Program are neither.
40. The Constitution does not permit such a sleight of hand. Absent enactment of a
law appropriating funds for the Section 1402 Offset Program – and no such law exists –
13 Letter from Sylvia M. Burwell, Dir., OMB, to Senators Ted Cruz and Michael S. Lee, at Responses p.
4 (May 21, 2014), available at
http://www.cruz.senate.gov/files/documents/Letters/20140521_Burwell_Response.pdf. The Burwell
letter responded to a letter from Senators Cruz and Lee which inquired why the Administration had flipflopped
on the question of whether Section 1402 Offset Program payments would be subject to
mandatory sequestration rules. See Letter from Senators Ted Cruz and Michael S. Lee, to Sylvia M.
Burwell, Dir., OMB, at 2 (May 16, 2014), available at
http://www.cruz.senate.gov/files/documents/Letters/Burwell%20Letter.pdf.
The Senators’ May 16, 2014 letter, in turn, resulted from a significant discrepancy between OMB’s
sequestration reports to Congress for Fiscal Years 2014 and 2015. In particular, OMB reported for FY
2014 that Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers for FY 2014 were predicted to be $3.978
billion, and that such payments were subject to mandatory sequestration in the amount of $286 million.
See OMB Report FY 2014 at App., p. 23 (referencing Treasury account no. 009-38-0126 under “Centers
for Medicare and Medicaid Services”). Ten months later, Treasury account no. 009-38-0126 disappeared
from the OMB report, with no explanation provided. See OMB, OMB Sequestration Preview Report to
the President and Congress for Fiscal Year 2015, at App., p. 6 (Mar. 10, 2014), available at
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/legislative_reports/sequestration/sequestration_
preview_report_march2014.pdf.
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defendants may not legally or constitutionally make Section 1402 Offset Program payments to
Insurers.14
41. Defendants’ actions injure the House by, among other things, usurping its Article
I legislative authority.
The Administration Unilaterally Amends Employer Mandate Provisions of the ACA
42. Section 1513 of the ACA amends the IRC by adding to Chapter 43 a new section
4980H. New section 4980H imposes on “applicable large employer[s]” who fail to offer to all of
their full-time employees (and their dependents) affordable health insurance coverage, as defined
in the statute, one or both of two tax penalties set forth in section 4980H(a)-(b).15 The tax
penalties are sometimes referred to as “employer shared responsibility payments.”
43. Section 1513(d) of the ACA states expressly that “[t]he amendments made by this
section shall apply to months beginning after December 31, 2013.” ACA § 1513(d) (emphasis
added).
44. Given its obvious importance to the budgetary impact of the ACA and the balance
of burdens between private and governmental sources, the selection of the December 31, 2013
14 Defendant Treasury Department is making Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers from an
account entitled “Refundable Premium Assistance Tax Credit,” which refers to the account for the
Section 1401 Refundable Tax Credit Program. See OMB, SF 133 Reports on Budget Execution and
Budgetary Resources, at p. 12,085 (Department of the Treasury) (Oct. 29, 2014), available at
https://max.omb.gov/maxportal/document/SF133/Budget/attachments/703038966/705527982.pdf.
Because defendant Treasury Department is making, from one account, payments to Insurers under the
Section 1402 Offset Program and Section 1401 Refundable Tax Credit Program payments, see id. at p.
12,087, Line No. 4190, and because defendant Treasury Department has not separated out the amounts
for these two types of payments, the House and the American people do not know the actual amounts that
defendants unconstitutionally and unlawfully have expended on Section 1402 Offset Program payments
to Insurers.
15 Section 4980H(c)(4) defines “full-time employee” (“FTE”) as, “an employee who is employed on
average at least 30 hours of service per week.”
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date was a matter of intense debate in Congress during its consideration of the bills that became
the ACA.
45. Defendants Lew and the Treasury Department effectively and unilaterally have
amended section 1513(d) of the ACA by altering the date by which penalties will be assessed:
i. Notwithstanding the clear direction in section 1513(d) of the ACA, defendant
Treasury Department announced on July 2, 2013, that it was “extending . . .
transition relief to the employer shared responsibility payments. These payments
will not apply for 2014. Any employer shared responsibility payments will not
apply until 2015.”16
ii. Notwithstanding the clear direction in section 1513(d) of the ACA, the IRS, a
bureau of defendant Treasury Department, announced on July 9, 2013, that “no
employer shared responsibility payments will be assessed for 2014.”17
iii. Notwithstanding the clear direction in section 1513(d) of the ACA, defendant
Treasury Department, in February 2014, promulgated a regulation, the Preamble
to which states that “no assessable payment under section 4980H(a) or (b) will
apply for any calendar month during 2015 or any calendar month during the
portion of the 2015 plan year that falls in 2016” for employers who employ “on
16 Mark J. Mazur, Continuing to Implement the ACA in a Careful, Thoughtful Manner, Treasury Notes
(July 2, 2013), available at
http://www.treasury.gov/connect/blog/pages/continuing-to-implement-theaca-
in-a-careful-thoughtful-manner-.aspx.
17 IRS Notice 2013-45, 2013-31 I.R.B. 116, at 3 (July 9, 2013), available at
http://www.irs.gov/pub/irsdrop/
n-13-45.pdf.
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average at least 50 full-time employees (including FTEs) but fewer than 100 fulltime
employees (including FTEs) on business days during 2014.”18
46. Defendants Lew and the Treasury Department also effectively and unilaterally
have amended section 4980H of the IRC by altering the percentage of FTEs who must be offered
insurance by certain employers:
i. Notwithstanding the requirement in section 4980H of the IRC that applicable
large employers offer affordable coverage to all of their FTEs to avoid the tax
penalty imposed by section 4980H(a), the Preamble to the Treasury Rule states
that “for each calendar month during 2015 and any calendar months during the
portion of the 2015 plan year that falls in 2016, an applicable large employer
member that offers coverage to at least 70 percent (or that fails to offer to no more
than 30 percent) of its full-time employees . . . will not be subject to an assessable
payment under section 4980H(a).” Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.D.7.a, 79 Fed.
Reg. at 8575.
ii. Notwithstanding the requirement in section 4980H of the IRC that applicable
large employers offer affordable coverage to all of their FTEs to avoid the tax
penalties imposed by section 4980H(a)-(b), the Treasury Rule provides that
applicable large employers must offer affordable coverage to only 95% of their
FTEs in 2016 and beyond to avoid the tax penalties imposed by section 4980H(a)-
18 Shared Responsibility for Employers Regarding Health Coverage, pmbl. § XV.D.6.a.(1), 79 Fed. Reg.
8544, 8574 (Feb. 12, 2014) (to be codified at 26 C.F.R. pts. 1, 54 & 301) (“Treasury Rule”). The
Treasury Rule purports to provide similar transition relief to large employers for 2014 by referencing and
incorporating IRS Notice 2013-45. See Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.B, 79 Fed. Reg. at 8569 (“Notice
2013-45, issued on July 9, 2013, provides as transition relief that no assessable payments under section
4980H will apply for 2014.”).
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 16 of 28
17
(b). Treasury Rule, pt. 54, §§ 54.4980H-4(a), 54.4980H-5(a), 79 Fed. Reg. at
8597-99.
47. No legislation has been enacted to alter (i) the deadline established by section
1513(d) of the ACA, or (ii) the ACA’s mandate in section 4980H of the IRC that applicable large
employers offer affordable coverage to all of their FTEs to avoid the tax penalties imposed by
section 4980H(a)-(b) of the IRC.
48. The ACA does not delegate to defendant Lew, to defendant Treasury Department,
or to anyone else or any other Executive Branch entity the authority to legislate such changes to
the ACA.
49. Defendants Lew’s and the Treasury Department’s alterations to the employer
mandate provisions of the ACA are estimated to cost federal taxpayers approximately $12
billion.19
50. The actions of defendants Lew and the Treasury Department injure the House by,
among other things, usurping its Article I legislative authority.
CLAIMS FOR RELIEF
COUNT I
(Section 1402 Offset Program Payments to Insurers
Violate Article I, Section 9, Clause 7 of the Constitution)
51. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 50, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
19 See Letter from Douglas W. Elmendorf, Dir., CBO, to Hon. Paul Ryan at 3 & attached tbl. (July 30,
2013), available at
https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/44465-ACA.pdf. CBO’s $12 billion estimate
is likely low inasmuch as it was calculated prior to the promulgation of the Treasury Rule that further
delayed the mandate an additional year for employers with 50-99 FTEs. See Treasury Rule, pmbl. §
XV.D.6.a(1), 79 Fed. Reg. at 8574.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 17 of 28
18
52. Defendants may not “draw[] [Money] from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
Appropriations made by Law.” U.S. Const. art. I, § 9, cl. 7.
53. No law appropriating funds for Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers
has been enacted.
54. The Section 1402 Offset Program payments that defendants have made to
Insurers, and are continuing to make to Insurers, violate Article I, section 9, clause 7 of the
Constitution.
55. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by defendants’
unconstitutional actions which, among other things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
56. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court (i) declare that defendants’
Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers violate Article I, section 9, clause 7 of the
Constitution, and (ii) enjoin defendants Lew and the Treasury Department from making any
additional Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers unless and until a law
appropriating funds for such payments is enacted in accordance with Article I of the
Constitution.
COUNT II
(Section 1402 Offset Program Payments to Insurers
Violate Article I, Section 1 and Article I, Section 7, Clause 2 of the Constitution)
57. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 56, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
58. Defendants may not “draw[] [Money] from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
Appropriations made by Law.” U.S. Const. art. I, § 9, cl. 7.
59. No law appropriating funds for Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers
has been enacted.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 18 of 28
19
60. Defendants’ actions in making, and continuing to make, Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers violate Article I, section 1 and Article I, section 7, clause 2 of the
Constitution.
61. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by defendants’
unconstitutional actions which, among other things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
62. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court (i) declare that defendants’
Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers violate Article I, section 1 and Article I,
section 7, clause 2 of the Constitution, and (ii) enjoin defendants Lew and the Treasury
Department from making any additional Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers
unless and until a law appropriating funds for such payments is enacted in accordance with
Article I of the Constitution.
COUNT III
(Section 1402 Offset Program Payments to Insurers Violate 31 U.S.C. § 1324)
63. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 62, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
64. Section 1324(a) of title 31 provides that “[n]ecessary amounts are appropriated to
the Secretary of the Treasury for refunding internal revenue collections as provided by law.”
65. Section 1324(b) of title 31 provides that “[d]isbursements may be made from the
appropriation made by this section [i.e., section 1324] only for – (1) refunds to the limit of
liability of an individual tax account; and (2) refunds due from credit provisions of the
[IRC] . . . .”
66. Defendants are using the permanent appropriation for refunds due under the IRC,
provided by section 1324 of title 31, to fund Section 1402 Offset Program payments.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 19 of 28
20
67. Defendants’ direct payments to Insurers under the Section 1402 Offset Program
are neither “(1) refunds to the limit of liability of an individual tax account; [nor] (2) refunds due
from credit provisions of the [IRC].”
68. The Section 1402 Offset Program payments by defendants to Insurers violate
section 1324 of title 31.
69. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by defendants’
unlawful actions which, among other things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
70. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court (i) declare that defendants’
Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers violate section 1324 of title 31, and (ii) enjoin
defendants Lew and the Treasury Department from making any additional Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers unless and until a law appropriating funds for such payments is
enacted in accordance with Article I of the Constitution.
COUNT IV
(Section 1402 Offset Program Payments to Insurers Violate the ACA)
71. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 70, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
72. In crafting legislation, Congress chooses whether particular programs will be
authorized without appropriation, authorized and funded with temporary appropriations, or
authorized and funded with permanent appropriations.
73. The budgetary impact of programs was a prominent element running through the
debate over the ACA, and Congress selected different forms of authorization or appropriations
for different programs.
74. For example, Congress selected different appropriation schemes for ACA sections
1401 and 1402.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 20 of 28
21
75. In section 1401 of the ACA, Congress established a new program – the Section
1401 Refundable Tax Credit Program – and, elsewhere in the ACA, appropriated funds for that
program by expressly linking the program to the permanent appropriation for refunds due under
the IRC (31 U.S.C. § 1324). See ACA, §§ 1401(a), 1401(d)(1), 1412(c)(2).
76. In section 1402 of the ACA, Congress established another new program – the
Section 1402 Offset Program. However, in stark contrast to the Section 1401 Refundable Tax
Credit Program, Congress did not provide any appropriation for the Section 1402 Offset
Program, either by linking that program to the permanent appropriation for refunds due under the
IRC (31 U.S.C. § 1324) or otherwise.
77. Congress thereby manifested its intent that the Section 1402 Offset Program be
funded by temporary appropriations, if at all, and that no Section 1402 Offset Program payments
be made absent such a temporary appropriation.
78. Congress has not enacted any temporary appropriation for the Section 1402 Offset
Program, and defendants cannot imply from mere authorizing language in ACA § 1402 the
authority to expend funds. Moreover, defendants cannot convert ACA § 1402 into a permanent
appropriation by executive fiat or unilateral action.
79. In light of the entire statutory scheme, the Section 1402 Offset Program payments
that defendants have made to Insurers, and are continuing to make to Insurers, violate the ACA.
80. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by defendants’
unlawful actions which, among other things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
81. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court (i) declare that defendants’
Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers violate the ACA, and (ii) enjoin defendants
Lew and the Treasury Department from making any additional Section 1402 Offset Program
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 21 of 28
22
payments to Insurers unless and until a law appropriating funds for such payments is enacted in
accordance with Article I.
COUNT V
(Section 1402 Offset Program Payments to Insurers Violate
the Administrative Procedure Act)
82. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 81, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
83. Defendants’ direct payments to Insurers under the Section 1402 Offset Program
constitute “agency action” and/or “final agency action” within the meaning of the Administrative
Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 500 et seq. (“APA”).
84. Defendants’ direct payments to Insurers under the Section 1402 Offset Program
are “not in accordance with law” within the meaning of the APA § 706(2)(A).
85. Defendants’ direct payments to Insurers under the Section 1402 Offset Program
are “contrary to constitutional right, power, privilege, or immunity” within the meaning of the
APA § 706(2)(B).
86. Defendants’ direct payments to Insurers under the Section 1402 Offset Program
are “in excess of statutory jurisdiction, authority, or limitation, or short of statutory right” within
the meaning of the APA § 706(2)(C).
87. Accordingly, the Section 1402 Offset Program payments defendants have made to
Insurers, and are continuing to make to Insurers, violate the APA, in particular, APA
§ 706(2)(A), (B), and (C).
88. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by defendants’
unlawful actions which, among other things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 22 of 28
23
89. The House has no adequate or available administrative remedy, and/or any effort
to obtain an administrative remedy would be futile.
90. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court (i) declare that defendants’
Section 1402 Offset Program payments to Insurers violate the APA, and (ii) enjoin defendants
Lew and the Treasury Department from making any additional Section 1402 Offset Program
payments to Insurers unless and until a law appropriating funds for such payments is enacted in
accordance with Article I of the Constitution.
COUNT VI
(Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.D.6.a(1) Violates Article I, Section 1
and Article I, Section 7, Clause 2 of the Constitution)
91. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 90, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
92. Defendants Lew and the Treasury Department may not amend or repeal any
provisions of the ACA.
93. By virtue of Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.D.6.a(1), defendants Lew and the
Treasury Department effectively have amended section 1513(d) of the ACA, which provides that
“[t]he amendments made by this section shall apply to months beginning after December 31,
2013.” Id. (emphasis added).
94. By thus effectively amending section 1513(d) of the ACA, defendants Lew and
the Treasury Department have violated the Constitution, in particular, Article I, section 1, which
vests in the Congress “[a]ll legislative Powers,” and Article I, section 7, clause 2, requiring
passage by both the House and Senate, and then presentment to the President.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 23 of 28
24
95. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by the
unconstitutional actions of defendants Lew and the Treasury Department which, among other
things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
96. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court declare that Treasury Rule, pmbl.
§ XV.D.6.a(1) violates Article I, section 1 and Article I, section 7, clause 2 of the Constitution.20
COUNT VII
(Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.D.7.a Violates Article I, Section 1
and Article I, Section 7, Clause 2 of the Constitution)
97. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 96, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
98. Defendants Lew and the Treasury Department may not amend or repeal any
provisions of the ACA, including amendments to the IRC effectuated by the ACA.
99. By virtue of Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.D.7.a, defendants Lew and the Treasury
Department effectively have amended section 4980H of the IRC, which mandates that applicable
large employers offer affordable coverage to all of their FTEs in order to avoid the tax penalty
imposed by section 4980H(a).
100. By effectively amending section 4980H of the IRC, defendants Lew and the
Treasury Department have violated the Constitution, in particular, Article I, section 1, which
vests in the Congress “[a]ll legislative Powers,” and Article I, section 7, clause 2, requiring
passage by both the House and Senate, and then presentment to the President.
20 The House does not seek relief with respect to IRS Notice 2013-45 which, as noted above in paragraph
45(ii), effectively altered the deadline established by section 1513(d) of the ACA from “months beginning
after December 31, 2013” to “months beginning after December 31, 2014” for all large employers, for the
sole reason that IRS Notice 2013-45 will cease to have any effect as of January 1, 2015.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 24 of 28
25
101. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by the
unconstitutional actions of defendants Lew and the Treasury Department which, among other
things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
102. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court declare that Treasury Rule, pmbl.
§ XV.D.7.a violates Article I, section 1 and Article I, section 7, clause 2 of the Constitution.
COUNT VIII
(Treasury Rule, pt. 54, §§ 54.4980H-4(a), 54.4980H-5(a) Violate Article I, Section 1 and
Article I, Section 7, Clause 2 of the Constitution)
103. The House incorporates and re-alleges paragraphs 1 through 102, above, as if set
forth fully herein.
104. Defendants Lew and the Treasury Department may not amend or repeal any
provisions of the ACA, including amendments to the IRC effectuated by the ACA.
105. By virtue of Treasury Rule, pt. 54, §§ 54.4980H-4(a), 54.4980H-5(a), defendants
Lew and the Treasury Department effectively have amended section 4980H of the IRC, which
mandates that applicable large employers offer affordable coverage to all of their FTEs to avoid
the tax penalties imposed by section 4980H(a)-(b).
106. By effectively amending section 4980H of the IRC, defendants Lew and the
Treasury Department have violated the Constitution, in particular, Article I, section 1, which
vests in the Congress “[a]ll legislative Powers,” and Article I, section 7, clause 2, requiring
passage by both the House and Senate, and then presentment to the President.
107. The House has been injured, and will continue to be injured, by the
unconstitutional actions of defendants Lew and the Treasury Department which, among other
things, usurp the House’s legislative authority.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 25 of 28
26
108. WHEREFORE, the House prays that the Court declare that Treasury Rule, pt. 54,
§§ 54.4980H-4(a), 54.4980H-5(a) violate Article I, section 1 and Article I, section 7, clause 2 of
the Constitution.
PRAYER FOR RELIEF
WHEREFORE, the House respectfully prays that this Court:
A. Enter declaratory relief as follows:
(i) With respect to Count I, declare that defendants’ Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers violate Article I, section 9, clause 7 of the
Constitution;
(ii) With respect to Count II, declare that defendants’ Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers violate Article I, section 1 and Article I,
section 7, clause 2 of the Constitution;
(iii) With respect to Count III, declare that defendants’ Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers violate 31 U.S.C. § 1324;
(iv) With respect to Count IV, declare that defendants’ Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers violate the ACA;
(v) With respect to Count V, declare that defendants’ Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers violate the APA;
(vi) With respect to Count VI, declare that Treasury Rule, pmbl.
§ XV.D.6.a(1) violates Article I, section 1 and Article I, section 7, clause 2
of the Constitution;
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 26 of 28
27
(vii) With respect to Count VII, declare that Treasury Rule, pmbl. § XV.D.7.a
violates Article I, section 1 and Article I, section 7, clause 2 of the
Constitution; and
(viii) With respect to Count VIII, declare that Treasury Rule, pt. 54,
§§ 54.4980H-4(a), 54.4980H-5(a) violate Article I, section 1 and Article I,
section 7, clause 2 of the Constitution.
B. Enter injunctive relief as follows:
(i) With respect to Counts I, II, III, IV, and V, enjoin defendants Lew and the
Treasury Department from making any further Section 1402 Offset
Program payments to Insurers unless and until a law appropriating funds
for such payments is enacted in accordance with Article I of the
Constitution.
C. Grant the House such other and further relief as may be just and proper under the
circumstances.
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 27 of 28
28
Respectfully submitted,
/s/ Jonathan Turley
JONATHAN TURLEY
DC Bar No. 417674
2000 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
(202) 285-8163
jturley@law.gwu.edu

Of Counsel:
KERRY W. KIRCHER, General Counsel
DC Bar No. 386816
WILLIAM PITTARD, Deputy General Counsel
DC Bar No. 482949
TODD B. TATELMAN, Assistant Counsel
VA Bar No. 66008
ELENI M. ROUMEL, Assistant Counsel
SC Bar No. 75763
ISAAC B. ROSENBERG, Assistant Counsel
DC Bar No. 998900
KIMBERLY HAMM, Assistant Counsel
DC Bar No. 1020989
OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
219 Cannon House Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20515
(202) 225-9700
Counsel for Plaintiff United States House of
Representatives
November 21, 2014
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 28 of 28
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 1 of 2
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-1 Filed 11/21/14 Page 2 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
for the
__________ District of __________
)))))))
Plaintiff
v. Civil Action No.
Defendant
SUMMONS IN A CIVIL ACTION
To: (Defendant’s name and address)
A lawsuit has been filed against you.
Within 21 days after service of this summons on you (not counting the day you received it) — or 60 days if you
are the United States or a United States agency, or an officer or employee of the United States described in Fed. R. Civ.
P. 12 (a)(2) or (3) — you must serve on the plaintiff an answer to the attached complaint or a motion under Rule 12 of
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The answer or motion must be served on the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney,
whose name and address are:
If you fail to respond, judgment by default will be entered against you for the relief demanded in the complaint.
You also must file your answer or motion with the court.
ANGELA D. CAESAR, CLERK OF COURT
Date:
Signature of Clerk or Deputy Clerk
District of Columbia
United States House of Representatives,
14-cv-01967
Sylvia Mathews Burwell, et al.,
Sylvia Mathews Burwell
Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
Jonathan Turley
2000 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-2 Filed 11/21/14 Page 1 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action (Page 2)
Civil Action No.
PROOF OF SERVICE
(This section should not be filed with the court unless required by Fed. R. Civ. P. 4 (l))
This summons for (name of individual and title, if any)
was received by me on (date) .
I personally served the summons on the individual at (place)
on (date) ; or
I left the summons at the individual’s residence or usual place of abode with (name)
, a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there,
on (date) , and mailed a copy to the individual’s last known address; or
I served the summons on (name of individual) , who is
designated by law to accept service of process on behalf of (name of organization)
on (date) ; or
I returned the summons unexecuted because ; or
Other (specify):
.
My fees are $ for travel and $ for services, for a total of $ .
I declare under penalty of perjury that this information is true.
Date:
Server’s signature
Printed name and title
Server’s address
Additional information regarding attempted service, etc:
14-cv-01967
0.00
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-2 Filed 11/21/14 Page 2 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
for the
__________ District of __________
)))))))
Plaintiff
v. Civil Action No.
Defendant
SUMMONS IN A CIVIL ACTION
To: (Defendant’s name and address)
A lawsuit has been filed against you.
Within 21 days after service of this summons on you (not counting the day you received it) — or 60 days if you
are the United States or a United States agency, or an officer or employee of the United States described in Fed. R. Civ.
P. 12 (a)(2) or (3) — you must serve on the plaintiff an answer to the attached complaint or a motion under Rule 12 of
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The answer or motion must be served on the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney,
whose name and address are:
If you fail to respond, judgment by default will be entered against you for the relief demanded in the complaint.
You also must file your answer or motion with the court.
ANGELA D. CAESAR, CLERK OF COURT
Date:
Signature of Clerk or Deputy Clerk
District of Columbia
United States House of Representatives,
14-cv-01967
Sylvia Mathews Burwell, et al.,
United States Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
Jonathan Turley
2000 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-3 Filed 11/21/14 Page 1 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action (Page 2)
Civil Action No.
PROOF OF SERVICE
(This section should not be filed with the court unless required by Fed. R. Civ. P. 4 (l))
This summons for (name of individual and title, if any)
was received by me on (date) .
I personally served the summons on the individual at (place)
on (date) ; or
I left the summons at the individual’s residence or usual place of abode with (name)
, a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there,
on (date) , and mailed a copy to the individual’s last known address; or
I served the summons on (name of individual) , who is
designated by law to accept service of process on behalf of (name of organization)
on (date) ; or
I returned the summons unexecuted because ; or
Other (specify):
.
My fees are $ for travel and $ for services, for a total of $ .
I declare under penalty of perjury that this information is true.
Date:
Server’s signature
Printed name and title
Server’s address
Additional information regarding attempted service, etc:
14-cv-01967
0.00
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-3 Filed 11/21/14 Page 2 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
for the
__________ District of __________
)))))))
Plaintiff
v. Civil Action No.
Defendant
SUMMONS IN A CIVIL ACTION
To: (Defendant’s name and address)
A lawsuit has been filed against you.
Within 21 days after service of this summons on you (not counting the day you received it) — or 60 days if you
are the United States or a United States agency, or an officer or employee of the United States described in Fed. R. Civ.
P. 12 (a)(2) or (3) — you must serve on the plaintiff an answer to the attached complaint or a motion under Rule 12 of
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The answer or motion must be served on the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney,
whose name and address are:
If you fail to respond, judgment by default will be entered against you for the relief demanded in the complaint.
You also must file your answer or motion with the court.
ANGELA D. CAESAR, CLERK OF COURT
Date:
Signature of Clerk or Deputy Clerk
District of Columbia
United States House of Representatives,
14-cv-01967
Sylvia Mathews Burwell, et al.,
Jacob J. Lew
Secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20220
Jonathan Turley
2000 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-4 Filed 11/21/14 Page 1 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action (Page 2)
Civil Action No.
PROOF OF SERVICE
(This section should not be filed with the court unless required by Fed. R. Civ. P. 4 (l))
This summons for (name of individual and title, if any)
was received by me on (date) .
I personally served the summons on the individual at (place)
on (date) ; or
I left the summons at the individual’s residence or usual place of abode with (name)
, a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there,
on (date) , and mailed a copy to the individual’s last known address; or
I served the summons on (name of individual) , who is
designated by law to accept service of process on behalf of (name of organization)
on (date) ; or
I returned the summons unexecuted because ; or
Other (specify):
.
My fees are $ for travel and $ for services, for a total of $ .
I declare under penalty of perjury that this information is true.
Date:
Server’s signature
Printed name and title
Server’s address
Additional information regarding attempted service, etc:
14-cv-01967
0.00
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-4 Filed 11/21/14 Page 2 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
for the
__________ District of __________
)))))))
Plaintiff
v. Civil Action No.
Defendant
SUMMONS IN A CIVIL ACTION
To: (Defendant’s name and address)
A lawsuit has been filed against you.
Within 21 days after service of this summons on you (not counting the day you received it) — or 60 days if you
are the United States or a United States agency, or an officer or employee of the United States described in Fed. R. Civ.
P. 12 (a)(2) or (3) — you must serve on the plaintiff an answer to the attached complaint or a motion under Rule 12 of
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The answer or motion must be served on the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney,
whose name and address are:
If you fail to respond, judgment by default will be entered against you for the relief demanded in the complaint.
You also must file your answer or motion with the court.
ANGELA D. CAESAR, CLERK OF COURT
Date:
Signature of Clerk or Deputy Clerk
District of Columbia
United States House of Representatives,
14-cv-01967
Sylvia Mathews Burwell, et al.,
United States Department of the Treasury
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20220
Jonathan Turley
2000 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-5 Filed 11/21/14 Page 1 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 12/09; DC 03/10) Summons in a Civil Action (Page 2)
Civil Action No.
PROOF OF SERVICE
(This section should not be filed with the court unless required by Fed. R. Civ. P. 4 (l))
This summons for (name of individual and title, if any)
was received by me on (date) .
I personally served the summons on the individual at (place)
on (date) ; or
I left the summons at the individual’s residence or usual place of abode with (name)
, a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there,
on (date) , and mailed a copy to the individual’s last known address; or
I served the summons on (name of individual) , who is
designated by law to accept service of process on behalf of (name of organization)
on (date) ; or
I returned the summons unexecuted because ; or
Other (specify):
.
My fees are $ for travel and $ for services, for a total of $ .
I declare under penalty of perjury that this information is true.
Date:
Server’s signature
Printed name and title
Server’s address
Additional information regarding attempted service, etc:
14-cv-01967
0.00
Case 1:14-cv-01967 Document 1-5 Filed 11/21/14 Page 2 of 2
 
Judge
Rosemary M. Collyer
Additional information: http://ia902606.us.archive.org/34/items/gov.uscourts.dcd.169149/gov.uscourts.dcd.169149.docket.html

Rosemary M. Collyer granted motion to dismiss: (I used Chrome to open link)

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCAQFjAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fjonathanturley.files.wordpress.com%2F2015%2F01%2Fproposed-order.pdf&ei=jAfOVODVFaaxsASwhoHYAw&usg=AFQjCNFpS4ZjaBIjh9DLASxTV06hpNEdwA&sig2=KjzHocgnDm3gq_sFMIsA7A